The European Society of Cardiology recently released their 2021 updated guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure. This article looks at the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The diagnosis of HFrEF requires the presence of symptoms and/or signs of heart failure (HF) and a reduced ejection fraction (LVEF ≤ 40%). Pharmacotherapy is the cornerstone of treatment for HFrEF and should be implemented before considering device therapy, and alongside non-pharmacological interventions.
Modern Medicine – Issue 5 2021