The lifetime risk for prostate cancer in men in South Africa is 1 in 19, according to the 2014 National Cancer Registry. Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer globally and locally, and is showing significant increases. A subset of advanced prostate cancer tumours are non-androgen axis signalling dependent, and harbour neuroendocrine features (including small-cell or large-cell subtypes) and are termed treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer (tNEPC). Chromogranin A, due to its primary expression throughout the neuroendocrine system, is a widely accepted biomarker for the assessment of neuroendocrine tumours.
Modern Medicine – Issue 5 2020